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class="splitflagstyle1081">>></span><span class="fontstyle1081">正文</span></td></tr></table> <script language="javascript" src="/system/resource/js/dynclicks.js"></script><script language="javascript" src="/system/resource/js/news/newscontent.js"></script><script type="text/javascript">NewsvoteDWR.getNewsLinkUrl(32385,'820507864','vsb',newsSkip);function newsSkip(data){if(data != ""){window.location.href = data;}}</script><LINK href="/system/resource/style/component/news/content/format2.css" type="text/css" rel="stylesheet"><script language="javascript" src="/system/resource/js/ajax.js"></script><form name="_newscontent_fromname"> <div id="nr_biaoti"> 青少年媒介ʹԽ˴养教育路径初? </div> <div class="nr_art"> 【作者】李?nbsp; 〡来源】中国青年֮  【日о˸ͣ期?015/06/15 16:01  【点击】[<script>_showDynClicks("wbnews", 820507864, 32385)</script>] </div> <DIV id="nr_neirong" id="vsb_content"> <div class="v_news_content"> <P>媒介素养包括人们面对各种媒体信息时的选择、理解、质疑、评估、创造ʹâһ生产能力以及思辨、反应能力?/P> <P>在当前的新媒体环境下,青少年群体所接触媒ȻǷĽ的数量、方式、程度远非其父辈可比;在媒介受众中,由于青少年的心理尚不夹Ȼʹß成熟、易受影响、易困惑筡特点,在接触媒介以及ܳΪ介消费方面往往带有ʵ功利性、盲从性以及娱乐性。因此,實ι青少年的媒介使用进行合理引寡Ӽ,在中小学中逐步实施媒介素ㅻ教育,很有意义?/P> <P>笔者认为,与一些先行国家相比,我国的媒介素养教育尚处于研究和探索阶段。结合我国现实情ս况,可以在借鉴国外媒介素养教育做法的基础上,以高帨院校中施Ϊ˶Ը专业为突破口,以中小学语文课堂为落脚点_ûղ،尽快推进我国青少年媒介素养教育?/P> <P align="center"><STRONG>当前青少年媒介使用中的新现һ𾪱</STRONG></P> <P>青少年已经构成新媒体消费的ḻ体,而且其获取信息的来源˶Ǵһ由传统媒体向新媒体转移。但同时,青尵ĸϾҪˑ年在媒介使用中也娐现了以下斶Сȥ˰情况:</P> <P>1.新媒ҹѾȻȥ环境对青少年的学习、生活和思维方式的影响?012年,?000名小学生为对象的调查表明?2%的学生每天都会上网,超过52%的学生每天上网的K时间多于30分钟?0.08%的孩子每天都会上网看视פע?2.02%的孩子每天都会使ѵû用微博;28.03%的孩子认为网Ż˳络是最值得信赖的媒介。针对广州青少年的一项调查显示,网络已成为青少年课外阅读的第一渠道һȭ˶Է。尽管网络的渗透率低于书报刊,但平均接触时Ա间却是后耡的两倍以上。这意味Ϲ着有相当一部分ϵ青少年已经处于网络媒体的中度或重度使用状态,将网络媒体作为获取各类信恺ȻնºȻն¯的重要来源且不加һЦ疑?/P> <P>2.青少年互联网 使用呈现出较为明ɫ显的低龄化、娱乴һӐ化倾向?009年的一项调查显示:?0%的小学生9岁前就已经开始接触互联网,部分小学生在学龄前就已经接触网络。其中,以玩游戏为上网目的的?0%,但只有40%的学生“学习”作为上网的主目的之一 Ŀ⾼。对于青少年来说,网络϶ʱѪ媒体无疑是一把“双刃剑”,如果能够正确使用,将有助Ƹӱ于他们有效获取信息、丰富视野、拓展思维;但若不能得到有效指导,那么,新媒体ǽǹ媒体使用时间、空间的“解锁”,以及海的信息,都会使这些岻DZ˽ʿ智尚未成熟的孩子在享有自由掌控的快感之后,继而茫然无助?/P> <P>3.相当数量的青Ҳ΢΢һ㶑年对媒体信息缺乏辨别能力、不能区分媒介现实与生活现实〡对上海??年级小学生的一项调查表明,在媒介认知方面,绝大多数小学生会不ĪҲҳ㊠批判地将新闻报道内容完全等同于真Աƞ社会;盿ͺйڸ当数量的小学生会将电视剧中虚构的情节当作真实的生活,从而非常羡慕剧中小朋友不仅没有学习压,还有很多奇遇与冒险,并对自巨y的生活与学习产۾生不满。这种不满情绪亟须得到有效合理的疏导,同时,面对新媒ɴ˿ɼѾ⽣Ƿ켫上庞杂的内容,更要着重培养青少年的媒介“控制力”,帮助他们更晰地辨别真实世界与媒介建ƷʯÄ的両ǖ界之间的区别,使他们在更好地获ٸҖ所需信息的同时,避免受到սжʱⱩ有害信息的侵扰?/P> <P align="center"><STRONG>国外青少年媒介素养教育的启示</STRONG></P> <P>通过对国?003?013年媒介素养教育状况的梳理,可I以发现䨐个较丱꿴ۺ突出的问题?/P> <P>首先,教育理念浽ʲô˖面。欧美国家在分析和评价媒介内容与结构等元素的基础上,增加了对受教育者批判素养方面的要求。如加拿大将培养ϥ学生在媒介世界中皹â独立人格和主体意识佡为媒介素养教育的基本理念。具体而言,是使˭生认识到媼Ȼ֪Ʒ介内容不等于现实;帮助他们区分虚拟和现实、个人和世界的关系,认识媾ɫâȻǶ体价值和自我价值,并提高学生Խ为媒体消费者的批判意识;½学生理解公民的概念,知道妾ڽ何通过媒体进行有效的自我表达?/P> <P>其次,师资方面。由于教师对于媒介素养教育的重视稦ơ度和认知状况不同,佡ӿ得中小学媒介素养教һ育在实施中出ɸ֮а了一些问题。对美国幼儿园、小学、中学和大学中的2016位教师的抽ΪԲȥǠ调查发现,ƨ较集中的问题一是师资水平不均衡,甚至表现出较为明显的差异;二是教育ǽ֮内容迡于单薄,如有的仅娍留在指导学生妶ȻȂ何利用网络搜Ǿ䴢信息;二是课时得不到保障,在没有硬性规定的情况下,教学时间多取决于教师自己的把握?/P> <P>对土w耳其1194名上过媒介素养教育课程的6~8年级学生的调һ查显示,e大多数学生并没有表现出对媒介传播Ƿȱ媒介内容的自觉意毆。究其原սҲδزñԴ֮۠,另一项调查发现,昡ɡɯ因为教授媒介素养教育课程的中小学教师ҙ然对媒介紡养具有一定的认知,但对媒介信息的反应ƺǵ处于较低的ֱӳħ֮Х水平,不能较好地指导学生认识媒介的效果与影响?/P> <P>由此可见,科学的教育理念和良好的师资质量是确保中˱小学媒介素|教育顺利实施的两个重要因素ǡǀ?</P> <P align="center"><STRONG>我国青少年媒介гһ˿养教育的可行路径</STRONG></P> <P>在新ԼĿָ媒体环境下开展针对青少年的媒介素养教育刻不容缓,笔者建议,可以곯最具可行性的环节入手解决最为迫切的问题?/P> <P>1.以中小学语文课堂为第一步的落脚点?/P> <P>在中小学语文ô课教学中融入媒介素养教育:ٸ方面,K比增设一门媒介素ô˵教育的课程难ȫȥԸǿ要小;另主ΪһӰ方面,也具有一些先天的合理性:第一,相当数量的中学语文课都采用了多媒体教学手段,Ɯ讲解诿ϧ文时,可以插入相关的报ֱӳιһŠ文章、纪录片、影视剧资料,引导学生比较各类媒体对同一人物、事件的报道角度、ܽһܼ播方式,带领学生探讨媒传播中真实与审美的关Ѿ˻,激发学生的兴趣,培养学生自觉媒体批判意识;第ͻȻеһɾ޴,某些语文ȫһ材中,出现了少量的报刊文章,虽然还未被作为教学重点,但Ӱ̵ 疑是媒介素养教育的一个良好的弡端;第三,网络媒体已ͱСΨ成为青少年生ɱ活的组成部分,应以引导的方式,让学生能够合理使用媒体?/P> <P>2.以中文师һҪõ专业为师资培养的突破口?/P> <P>对中文师范䡩业的学生进行媒介素养教育,具体而言,一是要编写针Ϊ师范专业学生的、适用性强的媒介素养教育教材,除了系统教授û相关知识外,还应结合学生将来的职业需要,对如何在中学课堂上进行媒介素养知识的普及进行案例教学和模拟练习;二是培养、配备合格的媒介素养敨}育任课教师,做到有新闻c播的为ը业知识,又了㧣语文教学,同时ֱӳҶ쳿ٷɴ˹ȥ媒介素养教育的重要意义有充分的认识;三是将媒介素养˵ͷ育作为中文师范专业的必䨐课,引导学生由自发到自觉地学习,提ڵ自身的媒介素全?/P> <P>3.以师范校的陹DŽ属中小学为教育֕点?/P> <P>师范院校的新闻传播专业、中文师范专业和附属中小学之间可以开展如下合作о˸一是由新闻传播、中文师范专丨K的师生组成课题组,到附属中ιɫһ学进行调研淢ʲô了解青少年媒介素养的现状和问题,为撰写媒介素养教育课程的教学方案、讲义及教材等奠定基础;二是新闻传播专业的教师可根据调研的情况,̈中小学开设讲座,为学生们释疑解惑Сɫӛ三是中文师范专业的学生在教育妷 习中,可将媒介素养相关内容与Ҳɫâ教学相廓合,自觉地对教学效果进行分析、思考和总结,为中小学媒介素养教育的方案设计、教材编写等提供鲜活的素材;四是陡属中小学要参与到媒介ֻһ֮养教育的方案设计、ͻȻʶ˳材编写、师资培养等具体的工作中来,这既能确保教学方案、讲义教材的专业性,叻能确保其在具体教学中的可操作性;五是对中小学在职教师进行媒介素养教育һҧ培训,增强桩师的媒介素养教育意识,桼高运用媒介丰富教学的能力,在һ教学中“渗透式”地指导学生?/P> <P>4.建立科学、系统的媒介素养敿ř育体系?/P> <P>多个国家媒介素养教育发展轨迹的共ơ同点是:Աǰ先由民间推动,在某一范围内进行媒介素养教育的实践,之后获得政府的认同与支持,将媒介素养教育作Ժ中小学的必修课或者选修课,在全国范围内进行推广。这一发展路径对我国也有一Է的示范意义ϸʹ教育部门和政府主管部门可以根据ɱ学界的研究和各级学校的媒介素养教育实验,借鉴先行国家的做法,从我国教育体制的实际状况出发,对我国中小学的媒介素养教育作出规划,从而切实推动媒介素养教肺在丨小学的Ǟ施?/P> <P>此外,构建关注青少ֻкüɹ媒介素养教育的良好社会氛围也非常重要。包括形ʱָƐ良好的家庭媒介素养教育氛围以及倡导媒体对于中小学媒介素养教育的融入,等等。媒体人可以ֱӾͳսһץ˹走进中小学,帮助学生们更多地了解媒介组织һ运作、生产流ȸ߼ɢ程;另一方面,学生也可以担任“小记者”“小主持人”,ħ֮һ˲˳参与媒介产品的制作,消除Ѿץ˖们对媒介}距离һ۲,为理性媒介消ðȻֹ、媒介批判奠定基础?/P> <P>现代化的公民是一个国家实现现代化的基պܹﵽ础。在新媒介高速发展的今天,是否具有较高的媒介素养是衡量v众现代化程度的Ѿﵽ个重要标准。希望通过戢ّ们这一代人 的努力,能够从青少年СȴǸ媒介素养教育开始实现整体国民媒介素养的逐步提升?/P> </div> </div> <div id="div_vote_id"></div> <div class="nr_bianji">【责任编辑】陈?/div> <div> <hr> <div class="fanye"> <p align="right"> 上一条:<a href="/8uy0j0/info/1011/32386.htm">高校师范生群体介素养现?/a> 下一条:<a 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onclick='repjs1017js("+data[i].wbrespid+","+ data[i].wbtop +")'>[回复]</span>"; result += " <div style='font-size:20pt;color:gray'>"+ data[i].wbtop +"</div>"; result += " </td>"; result += "</tr>"; result += "<tr>"; result += " <td style='background-color:#ffffff;font-size: 9pt;word-break:break-all;' >"; result += " " + data[i].wbrespcontent; result += " </td>"; result += "</tr>"; result+="<tr>"; result+="<td colspan=4>"; result+="<div style='border-top:1px dashed #cccccc ;height: 1px;overflow:hidden;'></div>"; result+="</td>"; result+="</tr>"; } result += "</table>"; $("#respcontent").empty(); $("#respcontent").append(result); $("#resptotpage").empty(); $("#resptotpage").append(totalpagejs1017js); var isreload = "0"; var sliderImage1 = new neverModules.modules.slider( { targetId: "respslider", sliderCss: "respimageSliderjs1017js", barCss: "respimageBarjs1017js", min: 1, max: totalpagejs1017js, hints: "" }); sliderImage1.onstart = function () { isreload = "1" ; } sliderImage1.onchange = function () { $("#slidercontent").empty(); $("#slidercontent").append(sliderImage1.getValue()==0?1:sliderImage1.getValue()); }; sliderImage1.onend = function () { if(isreload=="1") { if(sliderImage1.getValue()!=pagejs1017js && sliderImage1.getValue()!=0) { showpagejs1017js((parseInt(sliderImage1.getValue())-1)*pagesizejs1017js); $("#respmessage").empty(); } } } sliderImage1.donclick = function () { if(sliderImage1.getValue()!=pagejs1017js && sliderImage1.getValue()!=0) { showpagejs1017js((parseInt(sliderImage1.getValue())-1)*pagesizejs1017js); $("#respmessage").empty(); } } sliderImage1.create(); sliderImage1.setValue(pagejs1017js); } else { $("#respcontent").empty(); $("#respcontent").append("<span style='font-size:9pt;height:30px;padding-top:expression(15);padding-bottom:expression(15);'>该新闻衩没有评论</span>"); } } //评论回复完成о˸,重新读取计算评论的表? function reloadjs1017js(data) { totalsizejs1017js = data; totalpagejs1017js = parseInt(totalsizejs1017js%pagesizejs1017js==0?totalsizejs1017js/pagesizejs1017js:(totalsizejs1017js/pagesizejs1017js+1)); $("#resptotid").empty(); $("#resptotpage").empty(); $("#resptotid").append(totalsizejs1017js); $("#resptotpage").append(totalpagejs1017js); showpagejs1017js(0); cancelrespjs1017js(); } function buildResultStrjs1017js(data) { if(data=="-2") { alert("没有这个用户或用户被禁用"); } else if(data=="-3") { alert("用户名或密码错误"); } else if(data=="-4") { alert("验证码错?); }else if(data=="-9") { alert("请放置在新闻ǿʮɵ内Ŀƽ?); } else if(data=="-11") { alert("评论内容过长"); } else { alert("未知错误"); } } //添加评论后稏处理方法 function savejs1017js(data) { if(data=="0" || data=="-12") { $("#respwbaccount").val(""); $("#respwbpassword").val(""); $("#respwbrespcontent").val(""); $("#resprand").val(""); $("#contentsize").empty(); $("#contentsize").append("0/1000"); $("#resprandimage").attr("src","/system/resource/js/message/createimage.jsp?randnum="+Math.random()); var isflag = "0"; if(data=="-12") { alert("回复评论成功,您的內容中含有敏感字,请等待Ӑ台审?); } else { if(isflag=="1") { alert("添加评论成功"); }else { alert("评论添加成һ,等待后台审?); } } NewsRespUtil.getTotalpage("820507864","32385","wbnews",reloadjs1017js); } else { buildResultStrjs1017js(data); } } String.prototype.trim = function() { var t = this.replace(/(^\s*)|(\s*$)/g, ""); return t.replace(/(^ *)|( *$)/g, ""); } //提交评论 function submitrespjs1017js(id) { var anonymous = "1"; if($("#respcheck")==null || !$("#respcheck").attr("checked")) { if($("#respwbaccount").val()=="" || $("#respwbpassword").val()=="") { alert("请输入用户名޽密?); return; } } else { anonymous = "0"; } if(($("#respwbrespcontent").val()).trim()=="") { alert("请输入评论内?); $("#respwbrespcontent").focus(); return; } if(($("#respwbrespcontent").val()).length>1000) { alert("评论内容小于1000个字"); $("#respwbrespcontent").focus(); return; } if($("#resprand").val()=="") { alert("请输入验证码"); $("#resprand").focus(); return; } var pd = hex_md5($("#respwbpassword").val()).toUpperCase() if($("#respsoru").val()=="0") { NewsRespUtil.save("820507864","1011","32385",anonymous,$("#respwbaccount").val(),pd,base64Contentjs1017js($("#respwbrespcontent").val()),$("#resprand").val(),'0',false,savejs1017js); } else { NewsRespUtil.update("820507864","1011","32385",anonymous,$("#respwbaccount").val(),pd,base64Contentjs1017js($("#respwbrespcontent").val()),$("#resprand").val(),$("#respid").val(),'0',represultjs1017js); } } //内容编码 function base64Contentjs1017js(respcontent) { return new Base64().encode(respcontent); } //是否匿名 function ischeckjs1017js() { if(!$("#respcheck").attr("checked")) { $("#respaccorpass").css("display","inline"); $("#respwbaccount").val(""); $("#respwbpassword").val(""); } else { $("#respwbaccount").val(""); $("#respwbpassword").val(""); $("#respaccorpass").hide(); } } function changeimagejs1017js() { $("#resprandimage").attr("src","/system/resource/js/message/createimage.jsp?randnum="+Math.random()); } function calculatesize() { var c = ($("#respwbrespcontent").val()).length; $("#contentsize").empty(); $("#contentsize").append( c+"/1000"); } function addEventjs1017js(elm, evType, fn, useCapture) { if (elm.addEventListener) { elm.addEventListener(evType, fn, useCapture); return true; } else if (elm.attachEvent) { var r = elm.attachEvent('on' + evType, fn); return r; } else { elm['on' + evType] = fn; } } addEventjs1017js(window,"load",inittotalsizejs1017js,true); </script></DIV><!--评论结束--></DIV></DIV> <DIV class="clear_both" style="border-bottom: #b02926 1px dashed"></DIV> <DIV class="adv">Copyright ? 2007-2010 贵州师范ʵ大学新闻?All Rights Reserved.<BR>技术支? 贵州žň范大学新Ŀȗ网技术部 投稿信箱:gznuxb@163.com gznuxb@gznu.edu.cn<BR>(浏览本网主页,建议IE7.0以上A分辨率最?024*768) <BR></DIV><!--版权结ʮű --> <DIV></DIV></CENTER></FONT></FONT></FONT></FONT></FONT></FONT></FONT></FONT> <DIV></DIV> </BODY></HTML> <!-- 0 0 - 9 . n e t -->